西塞罗 (Cicero) I did not hold it necessary to render word for word,
but preserved the general style and force of the language.
Therefore, I did not have to make a word for word translation but
rather a translation that reflects the general stylistic
features(genus) and the meaning of the foreign words.
泰特勒 (Alexander Fraser Tytler) 《论翻译的原则》Essay on the Principles of
好的翻译定义 A good translation is one in which the merit of the original
work is so completely translated into another language, as to be as
distinctly apprehended, and as strongly felt, by a native of the
country to which that language belongs, as it is by those who speak
the language of the original work..
_______认为翻译是用一种语言代替另一种语言来传达同样信息的技巧。 Translation is a craft
consisting the attempt to replace a written message and/or statement
in one language by the same message and/or statement in another
Communicative translation attempts to produce on its readers an
effect as close as possible to that obtained on the readers of the
original. Semantic translation attempts to render, as closely as the
semantic and syntactic structure of the second language allows, the
exact contextual meaning of the original.